Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of human disease and health outcomes, and the application of methods to improve human health. Epidemiological studies are typically concerned about the health of populations, while clinical medicine is concerned with the health of individual persons.
Epidemiology is the study of diseases in populations of humans or other animals, specifically how, when and where they occur. Epidemiologists attempt to determine what factors are associated with diseases (risk factors), and what factors may protect people or animals against disease (protective factors).
Secondly, what are the 3 major types of epidemiologic studies? Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000). A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time.
what are the four methods of epidemiology?
Major areas of epidemiological study include disease causation, transmission, outbreak investigation, disease surveillance, environmental epidemiology, forensic epidemiology, occupational epidemiology, screening, biomonitoring, and comparisons of treatment effects such as in clinical trials.
What are the different types of epidemiological studies?
Epidemiological studies generally fall into four broad categories: cross-sectional studies. case-control studies. cohort studies.
How do you explain epidemiology?
By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).
What is an example of epidemiology?
Examples of applied epidemiology include the following: the monitoring of reports of communicable diseases in the community. the study of whether a particular dietary component influences your risk of developing cancer.
What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?
However, epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the five W’s listed above: case definition, person, place, time, and causes/risk factors/modes of transmission. Descriptive epidemiology covers time, place, and person. Compiling and analyzing data by time, place, and person is desirable for several reasons.
What are epidemiology tools?
Proportions, ratios, rates, prevalence, incidence, study designs, bias, confounding, effect modification, odds and risk ratios, statistical power, and confidence intervals are defined and discussed. Descriptive epidemiology is concerned with describing the distribution of disease by person, place, and time.
What are the basic principles of epidemiology?
Uses of Epidemiology Count health-related events. Describe the distribution of health-related events in the population. Describe clinical patterns. Identify risk factors for developing diseases. Identify causes or determinants of disease. Identify control and/or preventive measures.
Why do we study epidemiology?
Epidemiology is the study of disease in populations. Epidemiological methods are used for disease surveillance to identify which hazards are the most important. Epidemiological studies are also used to identify risk factors which may represent critical control points in the food production system.
What is a cohort study in research?
Cohort studies are a type of medical research used to investigate the causes of disease and to establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. The word cohort means a group of people. Prospective” studies are planned in advance and carried out over a future period of time.
What is another word for epidemiology?
epidemiologist. plural. epidemiologists. Synonyms and related words. People who study specific subjects:archaeologist, archeologist, astrologer
Is epidemiology qualitative or quantitative?
Epidemiology as defined by Last is “the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control of health problems”. Traditional epidemiological studies include quantitative and qualitative study designs.
What are the main objectives of epidemiology?
The principal aim of epidemiology is to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease. Identification of these factors both causal ( causation) and risk factors, enable developing a rational basis for prevention ( epidemiology, prevention).
What is morbidity?
Morbidity is another term for illness. A person can have several co-morbidities simultaneously. So, morbidities can range from Alzheimer’s disease to cancer to traumatic brain injury. Morbidities are NOT deaths. Prevalence is a measure often used to determine the level of morbidity in a population.
What is the study of disease called?
In humans, disease is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain, dysfunction, distress, social problems, or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. The study of disease is called pathology, which includes the study of etiology, or cause.
Where can I find epidemiological data?
Examples of sources of secondary data that are commonly used in epidemiological studies include birth and death certificates, population census records, patient medical records, disease registries, insurance claim forms and billing records, public health department case reports, and surveys of individuals and
What is the purpose of descriptive epidemiology?
Descriptive epidemiology aims to describe the distributions of diseases and determinants. It provides a way of organizing and analyzing these data to describe the variations in disease frequency among populations by geographical areas and over time (i.e., person, place, and time).